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Plagiarism and your written works

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Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Skallagrim on Wed Jan 19, 2011 12:18 pm

Hello all,

I want to put this on the table and state emphatically that plagiarism is not acceptable here on RolePlayGateway. We are a community of writers and the theft or use of another persons work without attribution to the owner of the intellectual property can lead to the role-play being shut down at the request of the IP owner. We have to be very careful when dealing with plagiarism and so I am posting the follow FAQs from Plagiarism.org to help our community better understand what plagiarism is.



Plagiarism FAQs

Plagiarism in the information age is not always a cut and dry issue. Read on to find answers for frequently asked questions about plagiarism and its consequences.

What is plagiarism?

Simply put, plagiarism is the use of another's original words or ideas as though they were your own. Any time you borrow from an original source and do not give proper credit, you have committed plagiarism and violated U.S. copyright laws. (See our What is Plagiarism? page for more detailed information on plagiarism.)

What are copyright laws?

Copyright laws exist to protect our intellectual property. They make it illegal to reproduce someone else's expression of ideas or information without permission. This can include music, images, written words, video, and a variety of other media.

At one time, a work was only protected by copyright if it included a copyright trademark (the © symbol). According to laws established in 1989, however, works are now copyright protected with or without the inclusion of this symbol.

Anyone who reproduces copyrighted material improperly can be prosecuted in a court of law. It does not matter if the form or content of the original has been altered -- as long as any material can be shown to be substantially similar to the original, it may be considered a violation of the Copyright Act.

For information on how long a copyright lasts, see the section below on the public domain.

Are all published works copyrighted?

Actually, no. The Copyright Act only protects works that express original ideas or information. For example, you could borrow liberally from the following without fear of plagiarism:

1. Compilations of readily available information, such as the phone book
2. # Works published by the U.S. government
3. Facts that are not the result of original research (such as the fact that there are fifty U.S. states, or that carrots contain Vitamin A)
4. Works in the public domain (provided you cite properly)

Can facts be copyrighted?

Yes, in some situations. Any "facts" that have been published as the result of individual research are considered the intellectual property of the author.

Do I have to cite sources for every fact I use?

No. You do not have to cite sources for facts that are not the result of unique individual research. Facts that are readily available from numerous sources and generally known to the public are considered "common knowledge," and are not protected by copyright laws. You can use these facts liberally in your paper without citing authors. If you are unsure whether or not a fact is common knowledge, you should probably cite your source just to be safe. Please visit Purdue's guide, "Deciding if Something is Common Knowledge."

Does it matter how much was copied?

Not in determining whether or not plagiarism is a crime. If even a small part of a work is found to have been plagiarized, it is still considered a copyright violation. However, the amount that was copied probably will have a bearing on the severity of the punishment. A work that is almost entirely plagiarized will almost certainly incur greater penalties than a work that only includes a small amount of plagiarized material.

If I change the words, do I still have to cite the source?

Changing only the words of an original source is NOT sufficient to prevent plagiarism. You must cite a source whenever you borrow ideas as well as words.

If I cite the source, can I still be accused of plagiarism?

You are allowed to borrow ideas or phrases from other sources provided you cite them properly and your usage is consistent with the guidelines set by fair use laws. As a rule, however, you should be careful about borrowing too liberally -- if the case can be made that your work consists predominantly of someone else's words or ideas, you may still be susceptible to charges of plagiarism. Also, if you follow the words of a source too closely, and do not use quotation marks, it can be considered plagiarism even if you cite the source.

If I write something somebody else already wrote, but I didn't know they wrote it, is that still plagiarism?

While it is possible that you might write on the same topic as someone else, odds are that you will not have exactly the same ideas or express them in exactly the same way. It is highly unlikely that you would be accused of plagiarizing a source you have never read. Be careful, however, of "accidentally" plagiarizing from sources you have read and forgotten -- if your ideas turn out to have been influenced by a source that you read but failed to cite for any reason, you could be guilty of plagiarism.

What are the punishments for plagiarism?

As with any wrongdoing, the degree of intent (see below) and the nature of the offense determine its status. When plagiarism takes place in an academic setting, it is most often handled by the individual instructors and the academic institution involved. If, however, the plagiarism involves money, prizes, or job placement, it constitutes a crime punishable in court.

Academic Punishments

Most colleges and universities have zero tolerance for plagiarists. In fact, academic standards of intellectual honesty are often more demanding than governmental copyright laws. If you have plagiarized a paper whose copyright has run out, for example, you are no less likely to be disciplined than if you had plagiarized copyrighted material.

A plagiarized paper almost always results in failure for the assignment, frequently in failure for the course, and sometimes in expulsion.

Legal Punishments

Most cases of plagiarism are considered misdemeanors, punishable by fines of anywhere between $100 and $50,000 -- and up to one year in jail.

Plagiarism can also be considered a felony under certain state and federal laws. For example, if a plagiarist copies and earns more than $2,500 from copyrighted material, he or she may face up to $250,000 in fines and up to ten years in jail.

Institutional Punishments

Most corporations and institutions will not tolerate any form of plagiarism. There have been a significant number of cases around the world where people have lost their jobs or been denied positions as a result of plagiarism.

Does intention matter?

Ignorance of the law is never an excuse. So even if you did not realize you were plagiarizing, you may still be found guilty. However, there are different punishments for willful infringement, or deliberate plagiarism, and innocent infringement, or accidental plagiarism. To distinguish between these, courts recognize what is called the good faith defense. If you can demonstrate, based on the amount you borrowed and the way you have incorporated it in your own work, that reasonably believed what you did was fair use, chances are that your sentence will be lessened substantially.

What is "fair use," anyway?

The United States government has established rough guidelines for determining the nature and amount of work that may be "borrowed" without explicit written consent. These are called "fair use" laws, because they try to establish whether certain uses of original material are reasonable. The laws themselves are vague and complicated. Below we have condensed them into some rubrics you can apply to help determine the fairness of any given usage.

The nature of your use.

If you have merely copied something, it is unlikely to be considered fair use. But if the material has been transformed in an original way through interpretation, analysis, etc., it is more likely to be considered "fair use."
The amount you've used.

The more you've "borrowed," the less likely it is to be considered fair use. What percentage of your work is "borrowed" material? What percentage of the original did you use? The lower the better.

The effect of your use on the original


If you are creating a work that competes with the original in its own market, and may do the original author economic harm, any substantial borrowing is unlikely to be considered fair use. The more the content of your work or its target audience differs from that of the original, the better.

We recommend the following sites for more information on "fair use" and Copyright laws:

1. University of Maryland - Copyright Laws
2. Fair Use Guidelines

What is the "public domain?"

Works that are no longer protected by copyright, or never have been, are considered "public domain." This means that you may freely borrow material from these works without fear of plagiarism, provided you make proper attributions.

How do I know if something is public domain or not?

The terms and conditions under which works enter the public domain are a bit complicated. In general, anything published more than 75 years ago is now in the public domain. Works published after 1978 are protected for the lifetime of the author plus 70 years. The laws governing works published fewer than 75 years ago but before 1978 are more complicated, although generally copyright protection extended 28 years after publication plus 47 more years if the copyright was renewed, totaling 75 years from the publication date. If you are uncertain about whether or not a work is in the public domain, it is probably best to contact a lawyer or act under the assumption that it is still protected by copyright laws.

SOLUTIONS

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REPRINT & USAGE RIGHTS: In the interest of disseminating this information as widely as possible, plagiarism.org grants all reprint and usage requests without the need to obtain any further permission as long as the URL of the original article/information is cited.

Learn how to cite Plagiarism.org observing APA and MLA standard.
The writer who cares more about words than about characters, action, setting, atmosphere is unlikely to create a vivid and continuous dream; he gets in his own way too much; in his poetic drunkenness, he can't tell the cart- and its cargo- from the horse.
John Gardner



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Re: Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Ylanne on Wed Mar 02, 2011 11:20 pm

A brief note regarding designation of factual information as "common knowledge":

In contrast to the article above, or at least its phrasing, common knowledge applies to the field of information or study or ideas from which the factual information derives. For example, if I said to the average person that Asperger's Syndrome was first recognized by the American Psychological Association in 1994, he or she would likely have no idea what I was talking about; however anyone who works or conducts research related to Asperger's syndrome or the autism spectrum ought to know this fact. It is common knowledge in its field. Similarly, stating that plants have alternating generations of sporophytes and gametophytes is a sure way to elicit a very confused look from most people; however, any serious student of biology or botany knows this fact.
​“Another world is not only possible, she is on her way. On a quiet day, I can hear her breathing.”
― Arundhati Roy

“The only way to survive is to take care of each other.”
― Grace Lee Boggs

“every day is another chance to practice living out the values that matter most to us. to be our best selves. to be the legacy we want to leave.”
― Mia Mingus

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Re: Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Riruka Dokugamine on Mon Mar 21, 2011 7:39 am

I'm glad, I've been worried about such things ever since I found someone c+p'd one of my poems under their own name.

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Re: Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Quitelovely487 on Mon Jun 06, 2011 11:19 pm

How do I take more precautions?
And can I have you're opinion on this pls! Thx

Above is the picture of Prof. Landford's academy for the "gifted" (Its really the Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital; it's been in the tv show House). This academy is home to Supernatural teens from all over the world. The academy helps its residents keep their powers secret and develop them so they can eventually use them for the greater good.

The vampire's purpose in this story is to be a mentor on strength and discipline for the "mutant"

Where you come in:
Your character will either be considered a mutant similar to something you would find in X-men I suppose, a vampire (Nothing campy! No sparkling or needing to be invited into places, but they can not pass certain forcefields and only some vampires are strong enough to go outside during the day), and last but not least you can be apart of the renegade which consists of all different types of evil creatures who kill without a care and need to be stopped. They can have up to three completely separate powers out of a plethora of powers to chose from and its completely up to you what powers you character will have regardless if they are a mutant, vampire, or member of the renegade.

Enjoy! <3
Need more information? Just Message me! Thankzz <3

Most important rule:
1. Yes their can be duplicate powers but the limit is two!
2. There are only three skeleton characters which are:
Milly
Milly is the 15 year old cousin of Ren and she is a major brat. She loves taunting Ren as much as possible. She has blonde hair and chocloate brown eyes.
Professor and| or Teacher
Runs school and|or gives out instructions.
Mr. Connor & Mrs. Marisol Hemsworth
Milly's parents and Ren's stuffy Aunt and Uncle


Please try your hardest to find a picture of who your character resembles or who you would want them to be portrayed by! If you can't find one I will send you options based on your description and if you don't like it then you will be allowed not to have a picture.
Rules
1. Don't go out of character unless necessary
1a. If you need to go out of character use parenthesis ex. (Insert out a character text here)
2. If you can't post because of some issue message me I am pretty understanding.
2a. Try to message me in a timely manner please.
3. Feel free to ask me any questions about the RP
4. OC's (Original Characters) are welcome seeing as this is an original story, but there are some spots that I made up that need to be filled as well. If no one fills them I will most likely play them.
5. If you must leave the RP please come up with a creative and intresting departure for your character ex. Death, Running away... etc.
Most important rule:
1. Yes their can be duplicate powers but the limit is two!
2. There are only three skeleton characters which are:
Milly
Milly is the 15 year old cousin of Ren and she is a major brat. She loves taunting Ren as much as possible. She has blonde hair and chocloate brown eyes. [Played by Me Unless someone else wants her]
Professor and| or Teacher
Runs school and|or gives out instructions.
Mr. Connor & Mrs. Marisol Hemsworth
Milly's parents and Ren's stuffy Aunt and Uncle

Please try your hardest to find a picture of who your character resembles or who you would want them to be portrayed by! If you can't find one I will send you options based on your description and if you don't like it then you will be allowed not to have a picture.
ImageImage

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Re: Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Majorasretribution on Sun Jul 03, 2011 4:44 pm

So this just applies to stuff that's actually copyrighted and protected by patent law right? For protecting the site on legal grounds?

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Re: Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Jag on Tue Jul 05, 2011 11:46 am

Patent law is something entirely different than copyright and has absolutely nothing to do with the expression of ideas. Patent law protects inventions and technical creations.

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Re: Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Majorasretribution on Sun Jan 01, 2012 12:26 am

Okay then. Thanks for the clarification even if that doesn't answer my question.

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Re: Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Jag on Sun Jan 01, 2012 2:13 am

Could you clarify your question? I'm not entirely sure exactly what you're asking. Anyone who creates an original work that is copyrightable automatically owns a copyright in that work without any further need to register, give notice, or put any formal language or symbol anywhere on the work. Anyone who then infringes on that work could be liable for that infringement to the rightful owner of that copyright.

What exactly are you asking?

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Re: Plagiarism and your written works

Tips: 0.00 INK Postby Alura--x--Uneii on Sun Jun 23, 2013 2:40 pm

As far as this goes, what about making references to other works or parodies? I see this all the time in anime and games then again Japan copyright laws are different than ours but if you wanted to do that in a book; do you need permission?

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